Apart from powered speakers or unpowered speakers and stereo receivers (in either case, all you need to look for is a red/white RCA connection), the main accessory you might need for your turntable is a phono preamp, if it’s not built in. Phono preamps take the quiet signal from the turntable and bring it up to line level—the level your stereo expects from CD players, tape decks, and even cellphones via the red and white RCA inputs on the back. There are plenty of good cheap options. Personally, I like the Art DJPreII, which costs a little less than $70. I wouldn’t spend less than $50 on one, but you don’t need to spend crazy money, either.
Other basics you’ll need are for maintenance and setup. You’ll want a record brush (often included with turntables), a way to clean your stylus, and a level to make sure your turntable is set up properly. Check out this video to see exactly what you need to do before you play your first record.